mediAzioni <p><strong>mediAzioni – ISSN 1974-4382</strong> is an international open access, refereed journal that promotes interdisciplinary work in the humanities. It welcomes contributions from/cutting across the following areas: intercultural and gender studies, literature and theatre, literature for children and young adults, linguistics, humour, media and film studies, history, translation and interpreting, accessibility, Child Language Brokering, terminology.</p> en-US (mediAzioni) (OJS Support ) Wed, 27 Dec 2023 11:32:18 +0100 OJS 60 L'intelligenza artificiale per la traduzione: orizzonti, pratiche e percorsi formativi <p>The present paper functions as an introduction to this special issue of <em>mediAzioni, </em>which brings together selected papers presented at the Translating Europe Workshop entitled "<em>L'intelligenza artificiale per la traduzione verso una nuova progettazione didattica?</em>" (3 December 2021), focusing on the pedagogical implications of Artificial Intelligence (AI), with a particular emphasis on Neural Machine Translation (NMT). The article revolves around three main themes. First, it considers the impact of emerging neural technologies on language services, redefining the traditional role of the translator and creating new responsibilities and tasks. Despite the considerable progress that NMT has made compared to previous models, it still has shortcomings that are almost "invisible" because they often lack clear grammatical or morphosyntactic marking. Such errors require a certain cognitive effort to identify, since they involve problems that are less obvious to the untrained eye, such as textuality or inadequacies at the level of discourse. Secondly, the article looks more closely at professional practices, especially those related to pre-editing, post-editing and proofreading. Particular emphasis is placed on the indispensable role of the human in translation workflows that integrate NMT not only at the level of post-editing and text revision, but also at the level of translation project management. Finally, the paper moves on to the implications of NMT for the training of translators and beyond, discussing key insights from the workshop participants regarding future teaching practices at university level. The article concludes by outlining the structure of this special issue and providing a brief synopsis of the collected papers.</p> Maria Margherita Mattioda, Alessandra Molino, Lucia Cinato Copyright (c) 2023 Maria Margherita Mattioda, Alessandra Molino, Lucia Cinato Wed, 27 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0100 La traduction multilingue : analyse d'une prouesse technologique <p>Neural machine translation (NMT) systems have made tangible progress in recent years, making them usable for an increasing number of domains and language pairs. The development of neural systems is based on machine learning algorithms and requires large electronic corpora of parallel texts, aligned at the sentence level. Such resources however only exist for a small number of language pairs and domains. To overcome this problem, a recent proposal is to develop so-called “multilingual” translation systems. These developments have been driven in particular by major Internet players, who need to develop automatic language processing tools for as many languages as possible. The main characteristic of these systems is to process multiple languages, both on the source and target sides, with a single translation engine. In this paper, we present the general principles underlying these systems and the innovations that have made them possible, before discussing their main strengths and weaknesses.</p> François Yvon Copyright (c) 2023 François Yvon Wed, 27 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0100 La traduzione nell'era dell'IA: nuovi ruoli, nuove competenze, nuova formazione <p>This article examines the impact of Artificial Intelligence (AI), and in particular Neural Machine Translation (NMT), on the translation industry. AI has the potential to simplify and increase productivity and the quality of work, but it also has the potential to marginalise human labour, creating conflicting attitudes towards the adoption of technologies. What is certain is that profound changes are taking place in the way we work, in the roles of language professionals and in the very concept of translation. The language service providers that are likely to thrive are those that can transform themselves into specialists who manage work processes, know how to use and control machines, and understand that AI needs language data to evolve. Professionals should also demonstrate to be conscious interlingual communicators with linguistic sensitivity, intercultural awareness and creativity. Translators are becoming post-editors, transcreators, language data managers, multilingual communication consultants for different media or trainers of non-professional translators. Post-editing has become a convergent activity with human translation, and translators and students are increasingly using NMT, often integrated with computer-aided translation (CAT) tools. Translation professionals are therefore required to understand the evolution, characteristics and types of NMT systems, their potential and limitations, and to know and deal with the different fields of activity that are emerging. This raises the question of whether the translation and language training offered by universities and schools is still adequate, or how they should embrace the challenge of updating their curricula and study programs to meet the needs of the market.</p> Hellmut Riediger, Gabriele Galati Copyright (c) 2023 Hellmut Riediger, Gabriele Galati Wed, 27 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0100 Per una didattica della traduzione automatica <p>Translation technologies are widely used in the translation process and the market is witnessing a radical change in translation practices, with a significant impact on the translation professions. It is important that translation programmes adopted by universities consider the rapid advances in language and translation technologies and devote specific theoretical and practical courses to this topic. Students need to develop specific competences and skills and acquire an advanced mastery of the technologies. In particular, given the current dominant paradigm in machine translation, namely Neural Machine Translation, they need to be aware of the benefits but also the challenges it poses to translators. This paper discusses the concept of “human parity”, which has been proposed in the field as the main goal of current machine translation systems, and presents the teaching and learning of translation technology, with a particular focus on what has been developed at the University of Naples <em>L'Orientale.</em></p> Johanna Monti Copyright (c) 2023 Johanna Monti Wed, 27 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0100 Former aux technologies de la traduction : les programmes EMT en France et en Italie <p>Our study aims to compare the course objectives and teaching methods of translation technologies offered by the French and Italian Master's programmes that are members of the European Master's in Translation (EMT) network. Data retrieved from this comparative analysis will be related to the competences targeted by the latest version of the EMT reference framework in order to identify those that are the most representative of EMT training programmes (for the academic year 2021-2022) on both sides of the Alps. The qualitative analysis of the results will also include the feedback collected through a questionnaire that was completed by the pedagogical managers of the programmes concerned by our study. The aim of our comparative analysis is to contribute to the translational reflection applied to the translation training in the age of artificial intelligence (AI).</p> Ilaria Cennamo, Yannick Hamon Copyright (c) 2023 Ilaria Cennamo, Yannick Hamon Wed, 27 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0100 L'intégration de la révision et de la post-édition dans la formation en traduction <p>Since the first studies observing pedagogical activities related to quality in translator training, many evolutions have taken place, in training programmes as well as in the professional world. Revision has gained a more streamline position in translation processes, and post-editing more and more visible, aided by the improvement of Neural Machine Translation (NMT) quality. These two activities, which aim at upgrading human translations, for revision, and machine translations, for post-editing, still respond to different expectations, practices and document types.&nbsp;However, the role of the skilled expert is acknowledged in normative texts about both activities, and the sealed barriers that existed before between human translation, assisted translation and machine translation, are increasingly blurred. In this paper, we will endeavour to set an integrated and balanced positioning of post-editing in translation training, leveraging the strengths and weaknesses of human translation as much as machine translation, in order to contribute to the long-lasting value of the professional translation specialist.</p> Katell Hernández Morin Copyright (c) 2023 Katell Hernández Morin Wed, 27 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0100 The Evolutive Nature of Translation and Teaching Workflow: Textometric Analysis of Multiple Revision Cycles in a Simulated Website Translation Project <p>In this paper, we explore the practical and theoretical status of revision in the context of a Masters-level website translation project integrating machine translation (MT) for teaching purposes. We use textometric analysis to explore the nature of modifications made at each of the different stages of revision during the lifetime of one particular project. Computation of <em>characteristic elements</em> and <em>Correspondence Analysis (CA) </em>reveal regular patterns of linguistic intervention, with significant differences observed between the initial stages of the project (MT-EN0 generated by SYSTRAN Pure Neural Machine Translation and post-edited MT-EN1) and subsequent revision cycles. We combine quantitative and qualitative research methods to study characteristic revision patterns in different project cycles (<em>chronological textual series</em>). While some of these patterns represent unpredictable “punctual” edits, the majority are “progressive”, involving modifications that are predictable or gradually built up throughout the project. More generally, it appears that different types of revision closely mirror the guidelines that are presented to students during the teaching workflow. This observation leads us to posit an “evolutive” view of the translation project: just as each webpage in the project has to undergo several cycles of revision, so each stage of revision needs to be carefully primed during the preparation of the project with the clients as well as the students.</p> Maria Zimina-Poirot, Christopher Gledhill Copyright (c) 2023 Maria Zimina-Poirot, Christopher Gledhill Wed, 27 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0100 Che cosa si aspettano le società di servizi di traduzione dai propri traduttori interni ed esterni, in qualità di 'fornitori'. Discussione sulle proposte per una formazione adeguata <p>By "language service providers" we mean both freelance translators (and interpreters) or employees of companies, and companies offering translation (and interpreting) services on the free market (i.e., "translation agencies"). In this article, we will focus on the expectations that translation service providers have of their suppliers, i.e., translators, when they are asked to post-edit a target text after using Neural Machine Translation (NMT). Obviously, the expectations of translation companies are reflected in the training of the translators. The NMT programmes currently on the market are constantly improving and are increasingly being adopted by translation companies because their product, from a very "raw" and unusable material, is gradually becoming "tractable". However, this "tractability" is mainly a function of the correctness and reliability of the source text. Since translation companies working on the free market do not, and cannot, have control over the source text, it is difficult to establish precise rules for improving the NMT output upstream. Therefore, for now, we can for now only give post-editors indications about the typical errors that we have detected in years of experience working with NMT. The greater attention expected of post-editors, compared to translators working without NMT, goes hand in hand with the correct interpretation and understanding of the source text, despite the shortcomings it often presents. How these indications can be translated into proposals for the training of future translators is not obvious, but we wish to emphasise the fundamental contribution of practice and experience.</p> Elena Cordani Copyright (c) 2023 Elena Cordani Wed, 27 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0100 Il settore della traduzione oggi <p>The use of Machine Translation (MT) and Neural Machine Translation (NMT) in professional translation activities is not only changing how translators work, but also altering how projects are managed and the expectations they entail within translation supply chains. The challenges posed by MT and NMT imply an increasingly involved role for translators in both company strategies and the managerial aspects of translation. This contribution aims to present the new professional opportunities and challenges in the translation industry considering the evolution of artificial intelligence, which has made automatic translation more precise and efficient, but has also raised concerns about the employability of human translators. Given the heightened complexity due to technological development and globalization, there might be a need for increased industry regulation, involving the establishment of new certification programs and the adoption of best practices to ensure the high quality of produced translations.</p> Mirko Silvestrini Copyright (c) 2023 Mirko Silvestrini Wed, 27 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0100